Thursday, October 21, 2021

Lists of Some Articles By Topic Area

I was once an all-around ramjet design,  development,  and test engineer,  among many other things,  including rocket work.  This was mostly at a plant in McGregor,  Texas,  once known as Rocketdyne or Hercules.  Part of that reservation is where SpaceX tests rockets now. 

I did just about everything there was to do,  for this ramjet work.  There are very few indeed with knowledge and experience this comprehensive,  I was definitely not a narrow specialist!  But my knowledge and abilities,  in each of all these different specialty disciplines,  was actually quite substantial and deep!  

My design analyses usually took the form of custom hand-calculations,  not just sitting there blindly running other people’s computer codes.  (Although,  I did use computer codes,  and even wrote some myself.)  I have informally published several articles on my blog site that describe how some of this ramjet work was done.

Ramjet & Closely-Related Articles (there are others,  but these are the best):

11-2-21                The “Warm Brick” Ramjet Device (nonpropulsive application to an infrared decoy)                                 [also the 11-2-21 update to this catalogue list]

10-1-21                Use of the Choked Pintle Valve for a Solid Propellant Gas Generator Throttle

8-2-21                  The Ramjet I Worked On the Most

7-1-21                  Another Ramjet I Worked On

11-9-20                Fundamentals of Inlets

3-3-20                  Ramjet Flameholding

2-16-20                Solid Rocket Analysis (applies to ramjet for boosters)

2-4-20                  One of Several Ramjets That I Worked On

1-2-20                  On High-Speed Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer

11-12-18              How Propulsion Nozzles Work

7-4-17                  Heat Protection Is the Key to Hypersonic Flight

6-12-17                Shock Impingement Heating Is Very Dangerous

12-10-16              Primer on Ramjets

12-21-12              Ramjet Cycle Analyses

These are located on http://exrocketman.blogspot.com,  along with many others on a wide variety of subjects. 

There is a navigation tool on the left of that page.  For the article you want,  you only need its publication date and its title.  Use the navigation tool:  click on the year,  then the month.  Then click on the title if you need to.  The data you need are in these lists.

If you click on one of the figures,  you can see all of them enlarged.  You see nothing but the figures,  though.  There is an “X-out” from this view,  upper right of screen.

At the end of any given article,  there is also a list of search keywords assigned to it.  If you click on “ramjet”,  you will only see the articles bearing that keyword.  The same is true of the other keywords.

Here follows a photo of one of the ramjets I worked on:  ASALM-PTV.  It is hanging under the wing of an A-7 Corsair-II,  an aircraft my father designed.  I always considered this photo a sort of “family portrait”. 

 

ASALM-PTV Ramjet Vehicle Underwing of A-7 Corsair-II

Some of those ramjet articles overlap with the next list.  That next list is of aerothermodynamics and heat transfer-related articles.  Some of these relate to high-speed atmospheric flight,  and others to atmospheric entry from space.  Those two scenarios are quite different,  in that atmospheric flight is a steady-state equilibrium problem,  while atmospheric entry is mostly a transient heat-sinking problem.  The search keyword for these is “aerothermo”.  Clearly,  I was adept at multiple specialties.

Aerothermodynamics & Heat Transfer Articles:

4-1-20                  Entry Heating Estimates

1-2-20                  On High-Speed Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer

1-9-19                  Subsonic Inlet Duct Investigation

1-6-19                  A Look At Nosetips (Or Leading Edges)

1-2-19                  Thermal Protection Trends For High-Speed Atmospheric Flight

11-12-18              How Propulsion Nozzles Work

7-4-17                  Heat Protection Is the Key to Hypersonic Flight

6-12-17                Shock Impingement Heating Is Very Dangerous

11-17-15              Why Air Is Hot When You Fly Fast

8-4-13                  Entry Issues

3-18-13                Low-Density Non-Ablative Ceramic Heat Shields

1-21-13                BOE Entry Analysis of Apollo Returning From the Moon

1-21-13                BOE Entry Model User’s Guide

8-19-12                Ballute Drag Data

8-19-12                Blunt Capsule Drag Data

7-14-12                “Back Of the Envelope” Entry Model

I was also a rocket propulsion engineer,  mostly in solid composite propellants.  However,  from the chamber outlet through the nozzle,  the ballistics of all rockets are the same,  including liquid propellant rockets.  If you can allow for any gas bled off and dumped overboard for turbopump operation,  then the very same ballistics apply,  right down to the chamber pressure vs flow rate calculation. 

Further,  the estimation of vehicle performance from the simple rocket equation can be made quite accurate,  if you know how to apply “jigger factors” in the appropriate places for gravity and drag losses,  and if you know what values of these “jigger factors” to apply.  I have been very successful at doing this kind of work. The following list shows that,  and mostly shares the “launch” and “space program” keywords.

Rocket Ballistics and Rocket Vehicle Performance articles:

3-15-21                Reverse Engineering Estimates: Starship Lunar Landings

3-9-21                  Reverse-Engineering Starship/Superheavy 2021

3-5-21             Fundamentals of Elliptic Orbits (delta-vee requirements)

2-9-21                  Rocket Vehicle Performance Spreadsheet (rocket vehicle performance)

7-13-20                Non-Direct to the Moon with 2020 Starship

7-5-20                  How the Spreadsheet Works (Starship to Mars)

7-5-20                  2020 Starship/Superheavy Estimates for the Moon

7-3-20                  Cis-Lunar Orbits and Requirements

6-21-20                2020 Starship/Superheavy Estimates for Mars

5-25-20                2020 Reverse Engineering Estimates for Starship/Superheavy

2-16-20                Solid Rocket Analysis (solid ballistics & more)

11-21-19              Interplanetary Trajectories and Requirements

10-22-19              Reverse-Engineering the 2019 Version of The Spacex “Starship” / “Super Heavy” Design

9-26-19                Reverse-Engineered “Raptor” Engine Performance (liquid ballistics)

9-16-19                Spacex “Starship” as a Ferry for Colonization Ships

9-9-19                  Colonization Ship Study

11-12-18              How Propulsion Nozzles Work (rocket, ramjet, & turbine; plain & free-expansion)

9-11-18                Velocity Requirements for Mars

8-23-18                Back-of-the-Envelope Rocket Propulsion Analysis (rocket vehicle performance)

4-17-18                Reverse Engineering the 2017 Version of the Spacex BFR

10-23-17              Reverse-Engineering the ITS/Second Stage Of the Spacex BFR/ITS System

3-18-17                Bounding Analysis for Lunar Lander Designs (rocket vehicle performance)

3-6-17                  Reverse-Engineered “Dragon” Data (rocket vehicle performance)

8-31-13                Reusable Chemical Mars Landing Boats Are Feasible (rocket vehicle performance)

In 2009,  I attended an asteroid defense conference in Granada,  Spain,  as a poster paper presenter.  I have since written some articles about asteroid defense.  Unfortunately,  the asteroid defense capability picture hasn’t changed much since my 2009 attendance at that conference.  Again,  the latest are the best and most up-to-date.   Be aware that “NEO” (Near Earth Object) includes comets as well as asteroids as threats.  Comets may be the more difficult to defend against,  because of the surprise nature of the detection and orbits.  These articles all share the “asteroid defense” keyword.

Asteroid Defense Articles:

8-30-20                Asteroid Threats  (current status assessment:  not good)

6-3-20                  On the Manned Spacex Launch

7-14-19                Just Mooning Around

12-13-13              Mars Mission Study 2013

4-21-09                On Asteroid Defense and a Good Reason for Having National Space Programs

I have also applied my wide-ranging knowledge to the problems of atmospheres to breathe while in space,  and the kinds of spacesuits that might best serve our needs.  Again,  the latest is the best and most up-to-date.  But I have been looking into these issues for some time,  as indicated by the dates on these articles.  These all share the “spacesuit” keyword.

Space Suits and Atmospheres Articles:

3-16-18                Suit and Habitat Atmospheres 2018

11-23-17              A Better Version of the MCP Spacesuit?

2-15-16                Suits and Atmospheres for Space

1-15-16                Astronaut Facing Drowning Points Out Need for Better Space Suit

11-17-14              Space Suit and Habitat Atmospheres

2-11-14                On-Orbit Repair and Assembly Facility

12-13-13              Mars Mission Study 2013

1-21-11                Fundamental Design Criteria for Alternative Space Suit Approaches

One of my favorites is the MCP (mechanical counter pressure) version of the spacesuit.  This was pioneered by Dr. Webb in the 1960’s as a possible suit for the Apollo missions to the moon.  It is not a full pressure suit at all,  but essentially a tight garment that simply squeezes the body.  It is porous,  so that you sweat right through it to cool,  just like ordinary street clothing.  But this design was tested quite successfully in 1968 for 30 minutes in a vacuum chamber,  at way above the equivalent “vacuum deathpoint” altitude.  Photo follows:


Webb’s MCP Space Suit:  Helmet,  Backpack,  and Supple Garment Total 85 Lbs

Besides vacuum death and microgravity disease,  there is also a radiation hazard to worry about in space.  But,  it is not quite what you think:  there are two completely different hazards to worry about.  On Earth,  we have two kinds of protection:  the atmosphere,  and the magnetic field.  In low Earth orbit,  we have only the magnetic field.  Outside the magnetic field,  going to the moon or anywhere else,  there is no protection.  Yet these things can be quantified,  and some of it shielded fairly effectively.  What got me started on this topic were the dangers posed by the nuclear disaster in Fukushima,  Japan.  Keyword “radiation”.

Radiation Hazard Articles:

10-5-18                Space Radiation Risks:  GCR vs SFE

4-11-15                Radiation Risks for Mars Trip

5-2-12                  Space Travel Radiation Risks

3-24-11                Radiation and Humans

3-17-11                Follow-Up On the Japan Nuclear Crisis

3-15-11                On the Nuclear Crisis In Japan

On a lighter note,  I have long been interested in pulsejet engines,  especially valveless pulsejets.  While teaching math at TSTC,  Waco,  I became involved with mentoring a student who was also interested in pulsejets.  I and a colleague assisted this student in making his own valveless pulsejet engines,  which attention and involvement also turned this student into an “A” student in math!  Keyword “pulsejet”.

That student built a small engine that eventually pushed an old golf cart around,  and then a much bigger engine which we together fired up out here on my farm homestead.  Photos of the two engines follow:

Smaller Student-Built Valveless Pulsejet Engine (Later Pushed a Golf Cart)


Larger Student-Built Valveless Pulsejet Engine

Pulsejet Articles:

5-20-12                Recommended Broad Design Guidelines For Valveless Pulsejet Combustors

4-30-12                Big Student Pulsejet an Even Larger Hit at TSTC

3-6-12                  Student Pulsejet a Hit at EAA Meeting

11-12-11              Student Pulsejet Project

I have been interested in ethanol fuels since my early days in college.  When I went to work for what is now Minnesota State University,  after my 20-year career in aerospace defense work ended,  I got more serious about it.  My next job was at Baylor University in Waco,  Texas,  and it dealt directly in alternative fuels for aircraft.  The scope of that included ethanol (and an ether) as piston-engine fuels,  and biodiesel-jet fuel blends as turbine fuels,  plus STC work with the FAA,  and also experimental engineering research work,  as well as classroom teaching. 

Not too long after leaving Baylor,  I began my own experimental engineering research at home,  using E-85 ethanol fuel,  and stiff ethanol blends,  in a variety of vehicles.  Those would include straight E-85 ethanol fuel in an old farm tractor and in an old-time air-cooled VW beetle,  plus stiff ethanol blends in a variety of completely-unmodified cars and 4-stroke lawn and garden equipment.  I basically recommend up to E-35 blend strength,  as a “drop-in” fuel,  for just about any 4-stroke piston engine. 

The keywords are “ethanol” and “old cars” for most of these articles.  Once again,  the latest is the best and most up-to-date.

Articles About Ethanol and Ethanol Blends in Vehicles:

9-1-21                  Making Stiff Blends At the Gas Pump

11-3-13                Aviation Alternative Fuel Compatibility Issues

11-2-13                An Update on Ethanol Fuel Use

8-9-12                  Biofuels in General and Ethanol in Particular

5-4-12                  Energy Storage: Batteries vs Unpressurized Liquid Fuels

6-12-11                Another Red-Letter Day

5-5-11                  Ethanol Does Not Hurt Engines

2-12-11                “How-To” For Ethanol and Blend Vehicles

11-17-10              Nissan Mileage Results on Blends

11-12-10              Stiff Blend Effects in Gasoline Cars

12-15-09              Red Letter Day:  Ethanol VW Experiment Complete

7-1-09                  Another Antique Comes Out of Storage

I have returned part-time out of retirement to help a friend with his auto repair business.  I was once ASE-certified as a condition of employment while teaching at Minnesota State in its Automotive and Manufacturing Engineering Technology department.  Before that,  I did most of my own automotive maintenance and repair work.  Accordingly,  I have posted some articles about basic car care,  plus one funny.  These all share the “old cars” and “fun stuff” keywords. 

Automotive Care Articles:

12-3-20                Blinker Fluid (the “funny”,  and it is a sight gag)

8-20-20                Underhood Check

7-25-20                Taking Care of Car Batteries

When I returned to the rocket plant in McGregor for my second employment there,  the family and I acquired an old farm outside McGregor as our home.  We have been there ever since.  This place was largely covered in shin- to knee-high prickly pear cactus,  so thick there were few trails through it.  After grubbing it out of the house’s back yard with hand tools,  I decided there had to be a better way to do this cactus eradication. 

I tried a variety of mechanical drags behind my old farm tractor for some 15 years without success.  The results were always the same:  it looked better for a while,  but returned worse than ever before,  within months.  My neighbor was trying shredding at 1 inch off the ground.  Eventually that worked,  but required the neighbor to be out there shredding,  every single day,  the same ground over and over,  for 6 (or more) years.  The neighbor also tried spraying herbicides on one patch of ground,  which took 3 years to show results,  but then totally reinfested within another 2 years.

I then tried to build a “scooper-upper” out of scrap steel.  The idea was to bust the aboveground cactus loose from its roots,  and catch it on a tarp towed behind the “scoop-upper”,  for disposal in a burn pit.  It completely failed to work,  because when the tool hit the cactus and busted it loose from its roots,  it fell forward in front of the tool,  instead of backward onto the deck.  The tool then just ran over the top of the cactus debris.  I gave up in disgust when this failure-to-scoop happened.

I went back up a few months later to salvage the steel,  and saw something totally unexpected:  the cactus was dead and gone wherever the tool had been towed!  Grass was growing in the cow pasture where the cactus had been.  It did not take very long to understand that the aboveground cactus foliage had been crushed and damaged passing underneath the heavy tool,  such that the pads dried out and died,  before they could put down new roots from the thorn sites in contact with soil.  They had completely composted away over those months.

I “played” with this tool to get it just “right”,  and started killing acres of prickly pear quite effectively,  and with very little time and effort involved.  In fact,  I still have this very same experimental prototype,  and it still works today.  This prototype led to me filing a patent on the cactus tool in 2002. 

I revised the design to something more producible from real steel stocks,  and built two production prototypes that worked just as well as the original experimental prototype,  but were easier to build.  Then,  with the patent in hand as of 2004,  I began building and selling these tools to the public.  My first customer wouldn’t wait for a real production tool,  and insisted on buying one of the two production prototypes.  I still have the other one.  I still use it,  and it now serves as an experimental test bed for new features,  too.

As time went by,  it quickly became apparent that other folks had rockier land,  or land with tree stumps.  I changed the design twice,  to add a heavier stabilizing snout,  plus a “barge front” wedging surface to get over small rock outcrops.  This was quite successful,  and is embodied in the tools still built and sold today.

A close friend wanted to do cactus-killing for hire,  and bought a “one-off” design from me.  I also helped him build and modify a few more tools,  until the “commercial version” was defined:  a really tough snout,  a big “barge front”,  and retractable wheels to facilitate stepping over obstacles,  plus easier loading up ramps onto trailers. 

When that friend retired,  I revised his “commercial” design into something that used a common core tool chassis with my “homeowner grade” plain tool.  This common core chassis had the big barge front,  and used either a tough snout for the “plain tool”,  or a longer tough snout for the “hydraulic tool”,  that was also fitted with retractable wheels operated hydraulically.  I sell both versions to this very day.  Both are towed on a chain bridle behind a farm tractor’s drawbar.

I am working on a third version that could be an alternative implement affixed to the hydraulic boom of a skid-steer loader.  It uses an already-available “universal” adapter plate to accomplish this,  as a quick-change item.  There is nothing to report here yet about that project,  but the “plain” and “hydraulic” tools are well-described in a series of articles on “exrocketman” under the keyword “cactus-killing”. 

These two versions are shown in the photo,  with the plain tool in the foreground,  and the hydraulic tool in the background.

Foreground:  Plain Tool;  Background:  Hydraulic (Wheeled) Tool

Articles Related to Cactus Eradication:

2-9-17                  Time Lapse Proof It Works

7-30-15                New Cactus Tool Website

1-8-15                  Kactus Kicker Development

1-8-14                  Kactus Kicker:  Recent Progress

10-12-13              Construction of the Plain Cactus Tool

5-19-13                Loading Steel Safely (Cactus Tool)

12-19-12              Using the Cactus Tool or Tools

11-1-12                About the Kactus Kicker

12-28-11              Latest Production Version of the Kactus Kicker

 









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